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CO2STCAP- Partial Capture on Industrial Sources

Monica - Blog18 10 17 Mon CakeAs part of the CO2STCAP project, last week I went to the review meeting in Stockholm. Concurring with this, the 4th October was the Cinnamon Buns Day in Sweden and we celebrated both, the last advances on the project and such a nice local pastry.


This project, funded by the CLIMIT program, Swedish Energy Agency and participant partners, is coordinated by Tel-Tek and counts with the presence of 11 partners (Chalmers, Telemark University College, Norcem, Elkem, GCCSI, Swerea Mefos, RISE Bioeconomy, SSAB, AGA Linde and IEAGHG).

The objective of this initiative is to apply partial CO2 capture to the most emitting industries to obtain more cost-effective solutions to reduce carbon emissions in steel& Iron, cement, pulp& paper and metallurgical production of silicon for solar cells. As interesting approach, the consortium is working on their cost assessment, developed by Tel-Tek, together with experimental tests and modelling tasks, supported by the rest of the partners.

During one day full of presentations, we saw the project updates and discussed on the next steps. As highlights, this project is proposing novel ideas and the interface with the cost tool is fascinating.

Regarding the cement industry, a presentation based on the Norcem case was given by Tel-Tek.  With 33MW as waste heat available in the process, four cases have been studied, which will be reported in the coming months.

18 10 17 Mon Attend

Four different full capture scenarios have been studied for the steel&iron production. Based on the results from the different simulation models constructed, we had an interesting discussion on the following partial capture cases.  

Within the results from the pulp& paper industry, we saw one study on the optimization of the capture configuration and the sensitivity analysis to clarify the influence of the assumptions on the results. Operating hours, lifetime and OPEX are the most influencing ones. As one of the conclusions from this presentation, CO2 capture applied to the pulp&paper sector is a cheap solution compared to other industries

During the next period, other configurations will be studied to minimize the cost of CO2 Capture in those industries and the use of biomass will be explored. We are looking forward to attending the next meeting

For more information about the project, there was a recent article published within the framework of GHGT-13: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1876610217319690 

Previous IEAGHG Technical Reports on those industries can be found in:

http://ieaghg.org/docs/General_Docs/Reports/2013-19.pdf

http://ieaghg.org/docs/General_Docs/Reports/2013-04.pdf

http://ieaghg.org/exco_docs/2016-10.pdf

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Progress on Ratification of the London Convention’s Export Amendment for CCS

TD 2It is the 39th meeting of the London Convention and the 12th meeting of the London Protocol this week, the global treaties that protect the marine environment. The detailed work on transboundary CCS was completed in 2012 (see IEAGHG 2013-IP26 and 2014-IP19) but outstanding is the ratification of the 2009 amendment for CO2 export which would remove a barrier to transboundary CO2 storage projects offshore. Whilst the 2009 export amendment was adopted in 2009, two thirds of the 49 Parties to the London Protocol need to ratify the amendment for it to come into force (ie 32). So in terms of ratification progress, new at this meeting was the announcement that Iran and Finland had ratified. Previously, Norway, UK and Netherlands had ratified, but no other countries in recent years. So it is welcome that there is progress, but still very slow towards it coming into force.

IEAGHG gave an update on activities relating to offshore CCS, and Norway gave an update on the progress with developments towards a full-scale industrial CCS project, which would have the potential to receive CO2 from industrial projects across Europe and so would benefit from the export amendment coming into force. 

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Global CCS Symposium at Regina

New TD 2The International CCS Knowledge Centre held its first Global CCS Symposium with a theme of “Advancing a Path Forward”, supporting the goal of the Centre to advance CCS globally. Some 160 attendees from 11 countries participated, including from China, Mexico, Indonesia, Bangladesh, South Africa, and from India by video, as well as Norway, Australia, UK, and from Asian Development Bank and World Bank.

The symposium brought together coverage of technical aspects in capture and storage, application in power and industrial sources, economics, policy aspects, climate-need aspects, CCS in the Paris Agreement, and perspectives from developing countries including much from China, and also Indonesia, Vietnam, Bangladesh and India.

There was a common recognition in the need and challenges in going from the million tonnes scale now to the gigatonne scale. Mike Marsh CEO of SaskPower gave an update on Boundary Dam CCS Project (BD3). David Greeson of NRG gave an update on the Petra Nova project. Brent Jacobs and Corwyn Bruce provided updates and learnings from BD3 operational experience, for example the use of activated carbon to stop foaming of the amine, and the benefits of testing capture systems in flexible operation load-following conditions, and differences to Petra Nova in construction materials for the absorber. Experiences from Shell’s Quest were also shared. Mona Molnvik of SINTEF gave an update on Norwegian developments, including the news that Shell and Total were joining Statoil in development of the Smeaheia storage site. ADB described their CCS technical assistance projects, which are to be extended from China and Indonesia to India, Vietnam, Kazakhstan and Bangladesh, including an interest in capture-ready regulations (for which IEAGHG has its 2007 report).

The Saskachewan Minister for Environment the Honourable Dustin Duncan spoke and described CCS as a “Saskachewan success”. Several media attended, interviewed and reported on the event.

IEAGHG was involved in moderating an ‘armchair dialog’ on “CCS: Essential Now!”, drawing upon IEA ETP 2017, IPCC and personal experiences and views of the panel.

The presentations will be made available by the Knowledge Centre. The symposium was followed by a visit to Boundary Dam, Aquistore and CCTF. Overall there was an air of positivity in the symposium, from the sharing of learnings from the large-scale operational projects with an international audience, including with some new countries. 

Image of the ADB Delegation

09 10 17 TD IMG-20171005-01662 Global CCS

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Mission Innovation CCUS workshop, Houston, Texas

TD 2Jasmin crop

Mission Innovation (MI) is an international initiative seeking to double each government’s investments in clean energy research and development over the next five years, with the goal of accelerating the pace of technology innovation to meet economic competitiveness, environmental, and energy security demands. It is estimated that the clean energy baseline doubling would make available an additional $25 to $35 billion in clean energy R&D, on top of a business-as-usual baseline investment of about $75 billion over 5 years. New investment will be focused on transformational clean energy technology innovations that can be scaled to varying economic and energy market conditions. Mission Innovation consists of the following Innovation Challenges (ICs):

  • Smart Grids
  • Off-Grid Access to Electricity
  • Carbon Capture
  • Sustainable Biofuels
  • Converting Sunlight
  • Clean Energy Materials
  • Affordable Heating & Cooling of Buildings

The goal of the Carbon Capture IC, which is led by the USA and Saudi Arabia, is to identify Priority Research Directions (PRDs) that will lead to breakthrough technologies. This workshop covers three major themes centred on carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS). The workshop focuses on identifying breakthrough low technology readiness level (TRL) research directions, i.e. TRLs 1-3/4, that are needed to achieve long-term technologies for CCUS. 

The product of the workshop is a report that will be issued. The report has two high level purposes:

  • Inspire the global research community to develop breakthrough research concepts.
  • Convince the general readership, including governmental policy and funding decision makers, that these research directions are critical to meeting future global energy needs.

Some 240 experts from 22 countries attended the workshop in Houston. Work was carried out in teams in the following focus areas:

  • CO2 capture
    • Solvents
    • Sorbents and looping systems
    • Membranes
    • Combustion and other technologies
  • CO2 utilization
    • Thermochemical conversion and hydrogenation of CO2
    • Electrochemical and photochemical conversion of CO2
    • CO2 conversion to solid carbonates
    • Biological conversion of CO2
  • CO2 storage
    • Injectivity and capacity
    • Monitoring, verification and performance metrics
    • Forecasting and managing induced seismicity
    • Well diagnostics
  • Crosscut

Crosscut was not broken down into panels but followed the developments in the other panels and produced nine PRDs itself, providing some reality-tests at the systems level for the other topics. 

A total of 33 PRDs were identified and described by the teams. These will be written up into the final report.

At the workshop, IEAGHG input directly to the “Crosscut” and ”CO2 storage: Monitoring, verification and performance metrics” panels. We look forward to seeing and using the results of the workshop.

Tim Dixon and Jasmin Kemper

02 10 17 TD JK MI 1 2

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NetPower Visit

TD 2As part of the Mission Innovation CCUS workshop in Houston, we visited the Net Power project at La Porte. This is a pilot-scale demonstration of a novel direct-fired oxy-fired supercritical-CO2 gas turbine based on the Allam Cycle. In fact Rodney Allam himself was present and co-hosted the visit with Bill Brown the CEO of Net Power. The partners in this project are 8 Rivers, Exelon, and CB&I. We learned that the combustion chamber is scaled at 50 MWth, and the turbine at 200 MWth and it is a first-of-a-kind by Toshiba. The inputs will be mostly CO2, some O2 and a small amount of CH4. A significant feature is the recycling of heat and CO2, and the production of water (when air-cooled), N2, Argon and CO2. The result is hoped to be an economical gas turbine with low cost electricity and a high-pressure supercritical CO2 stream output ready for pipeline transmission. The pilot project is at an advanced stage of construction. The expectation is testing of the combustion chamber in Q4 2017, and full operation in Q1 2018 with grid connection. The O2 and CO2 is supplied by Air Liquide nearby. The next phase will then be a 500MWth scale up of the turbine, and no scale up required for the combustors, and engineering design is underway. If successful, the technology offers a number of advantages over conventional plant: inherent CO2 capture, no NOx emissions, smaller physical footprint and low water usage. We will watch the testing developments later this year with great interest and wish them good luck. Many thanks for an interesting visit.

02 10 17 TD IMG 5455

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5th CCS Cost Network Workshop (13th-14th September 2017)

Monica - BlogThe 5th Cost Network Meeting took place in Imperial College London, chaired by John Gibbins, from UKCCSRC. With the presence of a varied scientific community, once again this workshop was full of valuable presentations.

The meeting was divided in two days, starting with a review on the UK studies and large CCS projects. From those sessions, it was interesting to see the techno-economic assessment of emerging technologies, presented by Amec Foster Wheleer. During their presentation, we saw promising results based on a decrease of the energy penalty on new systems compared to traditional CCS. The large projects were represented by Petranova and Quest plants. The day continued with the session focused on the cost of emerging processes, where NET Power and the Membrane-based technology were presented, and concluded with CCS in Energy-Economic models, presented by University College Cork and Oxford University.

The second day started with the intervention of Clara Heuberger, from Imperial College London, who presented the role of CCS within the UK electricity system. Following this presentation, Andy Boston, from Red Vector, showed the results on the Australian case. As main conclusions from both speakers, we saw that flexibility is essential to assess the integration of CCS technologies within a techno-economic framework. As example, in Australia, different conditions based on locations are identified, so the integration of decarbonising technologies must be adapted accordingly. Likewise, as we saw in past events, CCS should be part of a synergy of technologies, which would include renewable energy amongst other strategies. Inflexible grids would struggle in the future and reliable low emissions electricity comes at a cost. In this scenario, deeper decarbonisation levels can be achieved using CCS.

The last section of the cost network meeting was compound by three parallel workshop sessions, where the attendees were divided in three groups based on their interests. I was lucky to be part of the session “Learnings from demonstration projects: what will be the next plant cost? ”, chaired by Jeff Hoffmann, from USDOE NETL. In this session, interesting questions on the current CCS demonstration scenario were discussed: Firstly, the discussion started with the debate on the CCS status, currently based on FOAK (first of a kind) plants or large-demonstration projects. Additionally, while we see over-estimation of costs in those running plants to increase the trustworthiness on the carbon capture system, stakeholders consider that the cost will be reduced by 20-30% on the next constructions through a more precise design. Moreover, not only costs, but lessons from those projects are both technical and economically beneficial. In consequence, the strategy for the next generation of plants can take two pathways: First, going ahead to construct the SOAK (second of a kind) plant; or second, improve the systems at lab/plant scale and wait longer to scale it up. Nevertheless, IP issues will play an important role in CCS costs. While learnings can be extracted from projects running, still that could impact on the next plants costs.

The two days of the cost network workshop were charged of open discussions on methodologies to assess CCS costs and attendees showed high interest in continuing with those sessions. We look forward to attend the next one.

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7th HTSLCN Meeting

67 Jasmin aThe high temperature solid looping cycles (HTSLC) network meeting covers technology developments in fields where a solid material is cycled between multiple reactors at elevated temperatures. The scope of the IEAGHG HTSLC Network is to discuss recent progress in solids looping cycles such as calcium looping and sorption enhanced reforming for selective CO2 transport and chemical looping combustion and reforming with selective oxygen transport by the solids. It brings together well-known technologies used in Fluid Catalytic Cracking, Circulating Fluidized Beds and Combined Cycles, in new ways, to increase efficiencies and provide opportunities to decrease the carbon-footprint of energy intensive processes.

IEAGHG’s 7th HTSLCN Meeting took place 4th – 5th September in Luleå, Sweden. 50 delegates attended the meeting, which was hosted by Swerea MEFOS in the Kulturens Hus in the town centre.

The first day started off with a welcome from the organisers IEAGHG and Swerea MEFOS and a keynote presentation from Matteo Romano (Politecnico Di Milano) on the application of high temperature sorbents in industrial and power plants. The following technical sessions covered calcium looping modelling and testing, chemical looping fundamentals and economics and environmental impacts of both technologies in detail. After a short panel discussion summarising the main conclusions of the first day, delegates enjoyed a delicious dinner. All while taken in the stunning sunset over the Luleå archipelago and listening to a couple of Anders Lyngfelt’s (Chalmers University) famous live songs on climate change and chemical looping.

The second day started similar to the first one with a keynote presentation. Paul Cobden (ECN) briefed everyone about the STEPWISE project, which aims at demonstrating sorption enhanced water gas shift technology for CO2 reduction in the iron and steel industry. Valuable information for the site visit in the afternoon but more on this later. Participants again split up to attend technical sessions on either sorption enhanced reforming fundamentals and testing, as well as chemical looping modelling and testing. Afterwards, everyone assembled for the final session on the application of biomass to solid looping technologies, which was identified as one of the hot topics of the meeting, next to flexibility, as it could enable achieving net negative emissions. The meeting was concluded with another short panel discussion and a presentation by Eva Sundin, CEO of Swerea MEFOS, giving an overview about the company’s activities and a safety briefing for the tour. Participants then boarded a bus bringing us to the site of SSAB’s steel plant, where the STEPWISE demonstration plant is located. After a short reception with refreshments, the STEPWISE plant was officially opened, the ribbon cut and delegates were given a tour around the facilities, including the control room, SEWGS column and compressor station.

13 09 17 Delegates at the dinner

Concluding from the panel discussions and technical sessions, it was noted that solid looping technologies now urgently need to move forward in term of scale. Especially since the progress appears to have stalled during the last 2 years with no new large pilot or demonstration plant having been announced. However, this development is not exclusively concerning solid looping technologies but rather all CCS technologies, as requests for technical details and costs have driven some researchers/engineer back to the lab. Negative emission through solid looping with biomass and flexible operation have been identified as the hot topics of this meeting. It is important that the HTSLCN community has started work on these topics. The forthcoming IPCC Special Report on 1.5°C will hopefully help to regain momentum for CCS technologies. Next to biomass, sorption enhanced reforming technologies appear as a promising near-term option to party replace conventional H2 production. Thus, opportunities for solid looping currently seem to be in the industrial sectors, rather than in the primarily targeted power sector.

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IPIECA workshop – “Making CCS Fly”

New TD 2IPIECA is the global oil and gas industry association for environmental and social issues. They held a workshop on CCS on the 12th September at BP in London, bringing in a range of stakeholders to identity the key roles and actions to speed up CCS. Sessions covered costs and technical issues, policies and public issues, regional perspectives, business models, and the role for IPIECA. It was well attended, with many oil and gas company representatives as you would expect, and others from organisations such as US DOE, MIT, Oxford University, CCSA, IEA, IEAGHG, The International CCS Knowledge Centre and GCCSI.

In the many interesting presentations, responses and discussions, one to note in the business models session was from NRG on their Petra Nova project which became operational earlier this year. This large-scale CCS project on a coal power station has reached 800,000 tonnes captured and sent to use and storage in CO2-EOR. I was struck by what appears to be a more complex business structure compared to other CCS projects, with multiple companies and joint-ventures involved, including the export credit agency of Japan and a JV company set up by NRG and Hilcorp to run the pipeline and EOR aspects.

Also to note was the presentation by Myles Allen of Oxford University, highlighting that carbon price alone is very unlikely to stimulate CCS deployment, even with the modellers’ forecasts of higher prices, prices which also seem unlikely in the medium term, and so instead he was proposing some form of mandatory CCS mechanism.

IEAGHG was asked to respond on costs and technical issues, and made points on the need for large-scale demonstrations to reduce costs for subsequent projects by learning-by-doing and sharing experiences, the need to progress storage assessments, the refining of MMV strategies at larger injection projects, the challenges facing BioCCS, and the opportunities with offshore CCS and with CCS’s role in flexible power generation.

So an interesting meeting, running the day before the IEAGHG Costs Network meeting which is also in London (Imperial College), which helped those attendees who were attending both.

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PCCC4: 4th Post-Combustion-Capture-Conference, organised by IEAGHG

Monica - BlogIEAGHG organised the fourth Post Combustion Capture Conference (PCCC4) in Birmingham, Alabama, supported by NCCC. The event attracted 110 attendees from 16 countries and included two visits to full-scale Carbon Capture facilities, the NCCC and Kemper sites.

PCCC-4 opened with a visit to the NCCC facilities, where we were lucky to see the membrane-based post-combustion capture technology based on the new PI-2 material (presented recently in the 2017 NETL CO2 Capture Review meeting, see http://ieaghg.org/docs/General_Docs/Information_Papers/2017-IP51.pdf), chemical absorption system (now testing systems developed in collaboration with University of Texas at Austin (UTA)) and pre-combustion process.

The three days of PCCC4 presentations opened with plenary sessions, which included talks on the NCCC and Kemper demonstration projects, CCS in China and USA, followed by updates from the technologies tested by UTA. Moreover, a different policies perspective, given by Clear Path, completed the overview of the global CCS status.

Approximately 45 technical presentations included international research on 2nd - 3rd generation capture systems, novel solvents, modelling, industrial emissions, environmental impacts, pilot and large scale projects. On Tuesday, I was lucky to chair two fascinating sessions on last advances on amine solvents and industrial emissions. Firstly, we had the opportunity to see the last progresses on two research lines on hybrid amine solvents. We saw previous updates in TCCS-9 (see http://ieaghg.org/publications/blog/119-meetings-and-conferences/796-tccs-9) and GHGT-13: first, containing organic compounds and, secondly, including imidazoles, explained by UTA and NTNU respectively. In that case, recent kinetic results contributed to the further evaluation of those systems. Two presentations, given by Trimeric Corporation and UTA, showed the NO2 removal with Aqueous Sulfite process at two scales, including pilot testing at NCCC. Updates on cyclic oxidation piperazine and its avoidance were also given by Paul Nielsen, from UTA. Apart from amine solutions, biphasic solvents are lately emerging due to several advantages they might offer, as reduction of stripper size. We saw different approaches, based on liquid-liquid solvents (Ilinois State Geological Survey), based on precipitating systems (Lund University) and using catalysts. Still, the debate on high viscosity of the rich phase must be considered and research on the impact of that on the techno-economic analysis is still ongoing.

Through the industrial emissions session, we saw a good mixture of technologies. Following the presentation in GHGT-13 (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1876610217319598), ETH Zurich continued their research on the chilled-ammonia process in the context of the CEMCAP project (see http://ieaghg.org/docs/General_Docs/Publications/Information_Papers/2017-IP33.pdf), where we observed great interest from the audience. The results from the Tomakomai demonstration project in Japan were engaging, where we heard about social perception and government acceptance. As highlight, the discussion on the difference between the storage capacity and injection limitation due to regulations gave an additional realistic point of view. It is interesting to highlight the talk given by Hajime Kimura, from Mizuho Information & Research Institute, showing the work on the creation of guidelines on environmental risks of CCS systems in Japan. Also UK representatives offered some contributions for the next steps on risks guidance.

The session on 2nd-3rd generation systems included new configurations for membrane systems, as the two-layer structure with nanoparticles presented by Shinshu University. Through scaling-up, demonstration projects presented in this event included the technologies tested at NCCC, TCM, PICA Plant, University of Kentucky and Niederaussem.

PCCC4 closed with the visit to the Kemper site, based in Mississippi. We had the opportunity to see the pre-combustion facilities, including the fluidised bed gasifier and the ash separator column. Moreover, Richar Exposito explained rock formation possibilities we can find in storage sites and different strategies on CO2 injection campaigns.

In conclusion, PCCC4 covered a wide range of emerging systems at advanced stage of development. Full-scale projects proved that CCS technologies are technically feasible but still some concerns on price, regulations and environment must be addressed. Next generation of post-combustion capture technologies can include any of the systems exhibited during this event and IEAGHG will continue looking at those closely.

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NETL CO2 Capture Technology Review Meeting, 21-25 August 2017

Keith-BurnardMonica - BlogAs it does annually at this time of year, NETL chose Pittsburgh to host the 2017 review of the results and future plans of CO2 capture technology projects that currently receive funding from the US Department of Energy’s Office of Fossil Energy. With the DOE having some involvement in the vast majority of research and development on CO2 capture in the United States, the event marks an excellent opportunity to catch up on progress.

Lynn Brickett, NETL’s Carbon Capture Technology Manager, opened the meeting by welcoming the 160 or so attendees. While the attendance comprised largely of representatives from the DOE, NETL, the national laboratories, industry and various research organisations, there was also a strong international contingent present. During her welcome, Lynn advised that there would be a break in proceedings shortly after lunch on the first day to allow those that wished to go outside for the solar eclipse. As it turned out, Pittsburgh was an excellent location to experience this phenomenon; an added attraction that not all events can offer!

John Litynski, DOE’s Acting CCS Division Director, delivered the opening presentation, where he spoke on the revised DOE strategy going forward. He said there would be a shift in approach from testing in pilot-scale and larger facilities to earlier stage R&D and lower TRLs. Interestingly, industry would be expected to take much more of a lead in progressing technologies post-TRL5 to commercial. And 90% capture would no longer be a technology target, with the new priority to focus rather on the economics of the process. Otherwise, current priorities on such things as materials, oxy-combustion and chemical looping, for example, would remain.

30 08 17 KeithFollowing a series of opening keynotes from EPRI, IEAGHG, Gassnova, TCM, Gamma Energy Technology and Southern Company, the meeting continued with its extensive coverage of the full portfolio of CO2 capture-related technologies, systems studies, modelling and technologies for CO2 re-use. Ongoing work on solvents, sorbents, membranes, hybrid approaches, oxy-combustion, chemical looping, post- and pre-combustion, and CO2 compression technologies at various stages of development was described. Presentations covered work undertaken at lab/bench-scale, small pilot-scale and large pilot-scale.

Highlights over the week included presentations on advances in post-combustion, where topics such as the characterisation of new solvents, studies on improved materials for membrane separation and novel process configurations were covered, a good part at high TRLs. There was also significant coverage of CO2 utilisation projects at lower TRLs and just beginning their funding cycle. Lines of research included the use of CO2 in synthesising chemicals and fuels, plus other final products such as cement. CO2 re-use involved new chemical routes, novel catalytic processes and the use of lower footprint materials such as algae. Presentations during the final session were focused on chemical looping and oxy-combustion. Results showing microscopic observations of haematite at high temperature in chemical looping opened an interesting discussion on the chemical reactions taking place. 

There was also a feature during the meeting on NETL’s Carbon Capture Simulation for Industry Impact (CCSI2), a computational tool arising from the premise that developing a capture technology from inception to commercial availability is a tremendously costly endeavour. If a single stage, or even more than one stage, of the development could be achieved less expensively and/or more quickly, it would be very attractive and would accelerate the commercialisation of carbon capture technologies. CCSI2 is a partnership among national laboratories, industry and academic institutions to apply cutting edge computational modelling and simulation tools to precisely this aim.

It was evident from the numbers in attendance and the breadth of information imparted that R&D on CO2 capture in the United States is in a healthy state. Options at various stages of development bode well for the future. Efforts to drive down costs are progressing. With its new strategy and renewed funding commitments, the DOE’s programme looks set to continue the good work for which it is internationally renowned.

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Technology innovation that can enhance the monitoring of CO2 in the subsurface explained at the US DOE Carbon Storage Meeting

James-Craig cropThe US DOE annual Carbon Storage Review meeting, held in Pittsburgh 1-3 August, included presentations on the latest technology innovations currently under development in the country. One of the challenges of secure subsurface storage is the ability to track CO2 in deep reservoirs. Fibre-optic distributed acoustic sensors (DAS) are attracting increasing interest as a reliable medium for detecting subtle changes in reservoirs. The technology has been deployed and tested at CO2 storage sites and there is evidence that it could become a promising means of monitoring.

DAS works by responding to external pressure from a seismic source acting on the fibre that then induces a back-scattering effect. This response can be translated into a strain measurement that can be correlated with wave forms detected by conventional geophones. DAS generated signals have now been successfully correlated with vertical seismic profiles (VSPs) using arrays of geophones suspended in a wellbore. One key advantage of fibre optic systems that has become evident from field deployment is their durability. These systems are robust and have remained intact even after 5 years in the ground. The technology has now reached a stage where it is being commercialised. Helical configurations of fibres will improve the sensitivity of system and therefore signal quality and seismic images.

DAS, and other monitoring techniques, are run prior to CO2 injection into reservoirs to generate a base-line image. CO2 is then injected into the subsurface and tracked by running repeat surveys. Time-lapse and cross-well comparisons between base-line conditions and later surveys can provide evidence of CO2 distribution within reservoirs. Future research is planned to analyse different forms of shear-wave and heat pulse monitoring. These advances should lead to enhanced seismic images especially in deep reservoirs where conventional seismic techniques can be less effective.

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