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IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme

The Sleipner Benchmark Model originated in 2010 with the aim of improving modelling tools and methods and our understanding of CO2 flow dynamics, using the uppermost CO2 unit: layer 9. This model was prepared by Statoil, in conjunction with the Permedia Research Group. The CO2 injection at Sleipner started in 1996 and as such is the world’s longest running industrial scale CO2 storage project, with an extensive monitoring dataset. The monitoring programme consists of four high quality repeat seismic surveys, three gravimetric surveys and one electromagnetic survey.


Several benchmark models with regards to the CO2 storage industry have already been published in the literature, but these may be hypothetical in nature and unconstrained by monitoring data, omitting detailed geological and reservoir engineering aspects. For a benchmark model, the monitoring data should be of sufficient detail and duration to calibrate key uncertainties; the Sleipner benchmark model aims to do this by defining a well-constrained real case.


At Sleipner, CO2 is injected into the Utsira Formation; a Miocene shallow marine sandstone formation that overlies the mainly Jurassic oil and gas-bearing formations of the North Sea. Overlying the sandstones is the Nordland Group shale sequence, which provides an effective caprock at the CO2 storage site. The storage reservoir consists of two units; the main lower ‘Utsira Sand’ and an upper ‘Sand Wedge’, which is constrained by the overlying caprock. It is this sand wedge interval that is designated ‘layer 9’ and confines the benchmark model.


CO2 Storage Data Consortium is an open international network for data and knowledge exchange, initiated by Equinor, SINTEF, University of Illinois and IEAGHG in 2016. With the financial support from Gassnova and US Department of Energy the project CO2 DataShare was launched in 2018.


CO2 DataShare builds a digital platform for sharing reference datasets from pioneering CO2 storage projects to improve understanding, reduce costs and minimize uncertainties associated with storage of CO2. The goal is to offer a simple, standard, and low-cost solution for making high-quality data available to the research community worldwide.


The information in this new data resource supersedes the old Sleipner Benchmark model, which can be found at The specific information for the Sleipner project and relevant updated model can be found at